The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality at the Department of Health and Human Services funds research to improve patient safety, outcomes and effectiveness of care, and improve the delivery of health care services. The work funded through AHRQ is often duplicative of research being conducted through the private sector or other health care agencies throughout the federal government. In 2009, AHRQ received more than $300 million from the stimulus law to specifically conduct so-called "comparative effectiveness" research that seeks to determine what medical treatments are more or less beneficial than alternative treatments. Further funding for CER research was included in Obamacare. Critics of the agency note that the type of research being conducted by AHRQ could be used to develop policies that may restrict access to care for treatments and services based on cost. Critics also note this approach seeks to control health care costs through rationing of care by federal regulation rather than through generating market-based competition and empowering consumers through greater control of their own health care dollars.